Previously was presented a history of the galaxy, necessarily from a Federation-centered point of view, but nonetheless covering a great deal of non-Federation history. Any Federation-based series requires at least a cursory knowledge of the nature of the UFP. In the first half of this section, we cover the structure and function of the Federation. Following that, we examine Starfleet itself.
Two hundred years after its founding, the Federation stands at 150 member worlds, with dozens of planets under consideration for membership at any time. Ideally, the UFP would like all species in the galaxy to benefit from working together.
Benefits of Membership
There is strength in unity. With the thousands of inhabited worlds and dozens of alien species present in the galaxy, a forum where differing opinions can be peacefully resolved is valuable. Membership in the Federation offers mutual aid, protection, and political benefits. Governments can share their resources, sending medicine to a planet in need or relieving the burdens of famine. They can offer a united front against potentially hostile members. The Federation offers a forum where members can discuss their differences and find common ground on matters of galactic import. Moreover, members, by working together, can advance the cause of knowledge through shared research and exploration (best embodied by Starfleet).
INSTANT RECOGNITION: Once the Federation Council accepts a petitioning world into the UFP, that world instantly gains recognition as a full member, along with all associated rights. The planet earns a seat on the Federation Council and an equal vote just as Earth, Vulcan, and the other founding worlds do. This means the evaluation period is necessarily long—at least a few months, often a year or more—to ensure the prospective world is mature enough to shoulder this responsibility. Instant recognition and the voting equality of all members represent two of the strongest lures to membership for prospective worlds.
ECONOMIC SUPPORT: Worlds with economic difficulties need more than influxes of capital to solve their problems. Fortunately, the Federation has both vast experience in these matters and powerful technological solutions to most issues. The world of Bajor, though not a member world, represents an excellent example. After decades of exploitation at the hands of the Cardassian Union, the Federation—as a sign of goodwill—provided industrial replicators capable of producing large agricultural equipment and the technology necessary to turn one of Bajor's moons into a limitless energy source.
MILITARY SUPPORT: The need for defense on the part of member worlds is of paramount significance, especially for those worlds near the border of a hostile or potentially unfriendly neighbor like the Romulans. Many potential members cite protection from more powerful aggressor species as a major reason for requesting admittance to the UFP. Once a world joins the Federation, Starfleet dispatches special tactical advisors along with the normal contingent of Federation ambassadors and diplomats to evaluate the extent of Starfleet's future presence in the system. In those cases where the new member world is under imminent threat, the Council postpones this requirement, tasking Starfleet Command with the responsibility of securing the planet's safety immediately.
Responsibilities of Membership
Membership in the Federation has its responsibilities; it is not a free ride at the expense of other members. The Council expects each world to contribute material or financial resources to maintain Starfleet, fund research by the Science Council, and provide emergency services for any Federation members in the area. Local officials must regulate local trade and protect the freedom of interstellar commerce, and provide facilities, either on the planet or in orbit around the planet, for Federation administrators. Finally, members agree to uphold Federation laws ensuring individual freedoms as well as those safeguarding due process.
So far, each Federation world admirably meets these expectations, and requirements are intentionally kept low enough for every world to fulfill its responsibility.
New worlds join the UFP in one of two manners. Either they and the UFP have a history of past relations and the world opts to petition for membership, or the world is unknown to the UFP and joins after first contact has been made. In both cases, the requirements for joining are the same.
FIRST CONTACT: Prior to considering a world for membership, the Federation Council must first make contact with the prospective civilization. Often, this first contact results from Starfleet's normal course of business—exploring the galaxy. Any time Starfleet discovers an intelligent species, it dispatches a first-contact team. The team reports directly to the First Contact Division, based on Vulcan, under the Director of Exosocial Relations. If the newly encountered species does not possess warp technology the team covertly observes the culture, evaluating its social and technological status. The contact team files its report along with a recommendation for further study, without the culture's knowledge. If the species possesses warp drive technology, the rules are somewhat looser. First contact can be made directly via subspace radio or direct intervention. Optimally, this occurs after a period of observation, but warp-capable cultures can usually detect such covert activities and often dislike the notion of being observed. As a result, any starship exploring the galaxy has the potential to make first contact with other beings. Almost every ship has at least one first-contact specialist aboard, often—in the case of Galaxy-class ships—a whole division.
Both situations are delicate. First contact teams make mistakes, sometimes revealing themselves to the prewarp culture. Seemingly primitive cultures sometimes show surprising aptitude in detecting and ferreting out hidden observers. The team must rely heavily on technology as well as its own scientific training to remain hidden. Some officers operate within the culture itself. Known as heavy integration operatives, these agents spend months studying a society so they can insert themselves into it as seamlessly as possible.
Similarly, warp-capable cultures often represent their own coalition of worlds or single, very aggressive worlds. First contact with these cultures can not only damage the culture if not handled properly, but also damage the Federation if misunderstanding causes war. In all cases, a well-rounded first contact team relies on psychology, sociology, diplomacy, and technology to get the job done.
REQUIREMENTS FOR MEMBERSHIP: The requirements for acceptance into the Federation are kept intentionally simple. The Council considers complex requirements difficult to explain, difficult to meet, difficult to evaluate, and difficult to navigate. In every case, the Council appoints a cultural attaché, described below, to examine the issue.
Before being accepted, potential worlds must:
• POSSESS TRUE FASTER-THAN-LIGHT TRAVEL. This does not necessarily mean warp travel, although so far this has exclusively been the case. If the world developed FTL travel through means other than research and development—stealing it, trading for it, discovering it archaeologically, or through some other manner—the review process becomes more complex. The cultural attaché must spend more time evaluating FTL travel's impact on the developing cultures of the world. Societies acquiring warp travel through outside means—as with the Klingon Empire—often experience developmental problems as sudden access to other planets puts unnatural pressures on the indigenous society.
The Federation experienced first-hand the way in which exposure to an advanced race can corrupt the development of a younger race. The UFP believes each species has a right to develop on its own, even if this means risking the self-destruction of the society. The Council selected the milestone of warp travel, building it into the Prime Directive to protect developing cultures from this kind of shock.
• BENEFIT FROM ONE GOVERNMENT. The Council considers factionalism a sign of immaturity. The world must speak with a single voice. Furthermore, this global government must have a proven track record of internal stability and adherence to the principles of Federation.
• EXIST PEACEFULLY WITH ITS NEIGHBORS. In most cases, if a petitioning species meets the faster-than-light requirement, it dominates its local area technologically. How it uses or exploits this superiority is an excellent test of the planet's worth as a potential member race. If a potential member is at war with its neighbor, the Federation often extends the opportunity for peaceful negotiation to both warring members. Responses to these overtures go a long way toward providing the Council some notion of the participants' demeanor. The Federation, in all cases, prefers any warring cultures to resolve their grievances peacefully. It is possible, however, for a potential world to impress the Council with its sincerity while at the same time the opposing race impresses the Council with its belligerence. In these cases a treaty with the potential member world is signed, aid is given, and the war usually comes to a peaceful end. Then the petitioning race is reevaluated.
• ACCEPT THE PRINCIPLES OF FEDERATION. This, the most obvious requirement, demands the most rigorous evaluation. The principles of Federation allow many fine interpretations, some of which result in behavior subtly contrary to the Federation's goals. The cultural attaché spends most of his time studying the potential world, trying to understand as precisely as possible the mores and folkways of the planet's cultures to make sure they understand and agree with the principles found in the Federation Constitution.
THE REVIEW BOARD: The Review Board, a permanent subcommittee of the Council, has all first contact and diplomatic data at its fingertips, and often sends board members on fact-finding missions as well. Once the request is made the Board assigns a cultural attaché, with a team to aid him, to the culture in question.
The cultural attaché must be a skilled and highly experienced diplomat. The job requires nothing short of an extensive tour of the planet (or planets, in cases involving world- or system-spanning cultures) and an exhaustive review of the culture's society, economy, science, religion, government, and resources. The importance of attention to detail in these matters cannot be overstated. A cultural attaché might have no notion that, for instance, a society considers its children slaves belonging to the parents, usable for debt payment or as collateral on a loan. Such an attitude, contrary to Federation principles, could pass unnoticed until a review of the world's educational system took place. This makes the attaché's team necessarily large and the review period long.
When the review period ends, the attaché files the report with the Review Board, which returns a verdict usually within a few weeks. The verdict is rarely a surprise to the potential member, since one of the attaché's duties is to explain the Federation Constitution to the culture and ensure the prospective species understands these principles.
REJECTION: Those applicants who pass the review gain UFP membership and all associated benefits. For those worlds rejected, the reasons are usually obvious and fall into one of three categories: the culture is too belligerent, does not respect the personal liberty of its citizens, or does not respect the right of each citizen to achieve his full potential. While these last two may seem like the same thing, many cultures believe in personal liberty—the right of the individual to live free from fear or exploitation—while at the same time confining the individual's development to a given "caste" or other socio-economic subclass. Caste systems, for instance, often protect the rights of the individual and grant all members of every caste representation in the government, but do not permit members of one caste to rise beyond the limits of the caste into which they were born. These cultures often have a difficult time understanding why the Federation would reject them. These notions are covered in great detail in the Federation Constitution.
Rule of the Council
The Council is the Federation's legislative branch and as a result has the greatest impact on the daily lives of Federation citizens. Each member world sends a contingent of up to five representatives, formally known as "Councilors", to sit on the Council. Each world receives a single vote, regardless of how many representatives it sends, and the leader of each delegation— the individual who actually casts the vote—is that world's ambassador. Some worlds intentionally send three or five representatives to the Council, so each representative can weigh the issues, then vote on how to vote. The final vote represents a poll of the representatives, with the majority opinion holding sway. Other governments send only one ambassador with no fellow councilors and no staff. Still others maintain large offices in the buildings surrounding Federation Hall, from which hourly communications between delegation and homeworld dictate how the ambassador votes.
Voice of the Council
Every three years, the Council votes on a new speaker (though there is no restriction on the number of consecutive terms an individual may hold). The Speaker of the Federation Council has no legislative power, instead wielding considerable organizational power. First among equals, the speaker schedules debates, decides when a representative has spoken for his allotted time, and delays debates for given allotments of time. In most cases, the speaker's decisions can be overridden by a two-thirds majority vote by the Council. This prevents the Speaker from abusing his power. It is possible for a Speaker to be removed from office after a vote of no confidence is called.
Powers of the Federation Council
The Council is the primary governing body of the Federation, with broad and sweeping powers. These powers can be expanded only by amending the Constitution, an arduous and lengthy process that prevents the Council from suddenly overstepping its bounds. The Council's responsibilities can be divided into several broad categories:
• PASS LEGISLATION: Any citizen may propose a law. This usually occurs at the planetary level, where the local legislative body debates the merit of the bill. If the planetary government considers the bill worthy, the planet's ambassador makes a formal proposition in Council. The President usually creates a subcommittee to evaluate the pros and cons of the law. The subcommittee researches the subject and presents its report to the Council, and the Council formally votes. As with most acts of the Council, a two-thirds majority is required for a bill to become a law. Legislation passed by the Council affects the entire Federation. Laws addressing a single planet's needs must be passed in that society's own legislative body.
• ELECT THE PRESIDENT: Every six years the Council elects a new President, by secret ballot, from among its ranks. Each President may serve only one term. Only members of the Council may vote, and only for another Council member. Any voting member can be nominated for the position, with no limit on the number of nominees possible. Voting takes place in a series of rounds, with each round eliminating roughly half of the nominees, until finally only two remain in the final round.
• RESOURCE ALLOCATION: Each year the Council receives an annual report from the Economics Council, detailing exactly what resources the Federation has available. The Federation Council then spends roughly one month working on the next yearly budget. Because the Federation's operation is neatly divided—between the various permanent subcommittees of the Council, Starfleet, and the Secretariat—into about 100 different departments, the process of determining which department gets how many resources is far less complex than might be expected.
• OVERSIGHT AND FACT-FINDING: Of the many other functions of the Council, only two more bear mentioning here. The Presidential Oversight Subcommittee monitors the professional activities of the President, ensuring he does not abuse his power. Activity on this committee is low, as most Federation Presidents have been entirely trustworthy men and women with the support of the Council behind them. No Federation President has ever been impeached. Many important agencies—such as Starfleet Intelligence and the Economics Council—have permanent oversight subcommittees on the Council as well, reviewing their performance to prevent abuse of power.
Lastly, the Council forms and dispatches hundreds of fact-finding committees throughout the year to worlds, colonies, outposts, stations, ships, and anywhere else something significant to a Council vote takes place. Each fact-finding committee reports directly to the Council.
Life in the Federation
For the majority of Federation citizens, the local planetary government has a greater impact on people's daily lives than the Council. While the Federation Council oversees the legislative agenda for the entire Federation, governance of individual worlds remains with local officials. For instance, on Andoria the Council of Clans regulates planetary trade, establishes food and drug safety regulations, enacts local laws and ordinances, and allocates resources to various committees, bureaucracies, and groups. If a visitor inadvertently insulted an Andorian and he demands retribution (in the traditional Andorian fashion—a duel), the visitor would appeal to the Council of Clans for immunity. Appeal to the Federation Council is possible, but in almost all instances it would defer to the local planetary authority. Of course, you could accept the duel! Unless local laws violate the Federation Constitution, the Council is reluctant to interfere.
Traveling in the Federation
One of the great benefits of Federation membership is free and unrestricted travel throughout all the UFP's member worlds.
If a Vulcan scientist wanted to journey from Vulcan to Andoria, he would have several options. He could usually charter passage on a Vulcan Science Academy vessel, if he worked for the Vulcan Science Academy, for instance. Alternatively, he could use one of the many Federation vessels that frequently travel from one world to another. The Federation Bureau of Tourism and Trade would sponsor his journey in this case. This vessel could be any one of a wide variety of ships—traders, science vessels, dedicated tourism ships. Very rarely, a Starfleet vessel might be made available, although in these cases there must be special circumstances.
While unlimited travel is a legal right of every Federation citizen, the Federation monitors visa applications and immigration. Some planets, such as Risa and some worlds in the Rigel system, carefully monitor the influx of tourists over the course of the year to prevent overloading their civilian infrastructure. A world can accommodate only so many visitors before strains on the public and private sector become too great.
Local planetary authorities supervise permanent immigration to their worlds, and some restrictions may apply (usually based on population density, environmental impact, and infrastructure capacity). Earth, to use a popular example, simply couldn't accommodate the sheer volume of citizens who would move there if they could. Some planets, such as those along the frontier, are less attractive as tourist destinations due to the unique problems these planets face.
The Federation Economy
The economy of the future is vastly different from that of previous centuries. The Federation meets the basic needs of the majority of its citizens, and few want for anything. Homelessness and starvation are horrors of the past. Greed is only a memory.
In earlier ages people worked for monetary gain, using the money they earned to buy goods and services. Disparate incomes led to a wide gap between what were called the "haves" and the "have-nots," with money (and greed) skewing the allocation of even the most basic resources. Each citizen of the Federation receives goods each according to his needs and is encouraged to provide for the Federation each according to his abilities. Traders ply the trade routes, selling wares from across the galaxy. Colonies produce the raw materials and agricultural goods the Federation needs. Merchants throughout the Federation—from Vulcan shopkeepers to Terran restaurateurs—provide their unique services to the general public. People are productive for productivity's sake, not because they are paid.
To handle interstellar trade, the Federation Constitution established the credit as the unit of exchange within the UFP, to determine the relative value of planetary economies and as a means of trading with other, non-Federation cultures. Most often, inside the Federation the credit simplifies the equation of the value of, for example, grain produced on Alpha Centauri and dilithium it imports. In this way, the credit serves as a stable unit of measure, allowing resources to move between worlds efficiently. Credits normally have a value tied to the local currency, set by the Federation Council. For example, on Vulcan the credit is worth 100 Vulcan rials.
Though intended for interstellar trade, there are times when Federation citizens require currency, and the credit fills that void. Although society provides for many basic needs, such as housing, food, and clothing, sometimes individuals want to acquire a memento of their visit to Risa, buy a tribble, or sample some of the local cuisine. Often, local proprietors expect payment for their work, particularly on non-Federation worlds. Although many worlds still use some form of local or regional currency—either out of tradition or because they have recently joined the UFP—some have abandoned coinage entirely in favor of the credit.
Federation computers keep track of credits electronically, making fraud and counterfeiting extremely difficult on anything but the most limited basis. Most starfaring races inside the Federation recognize the credit as the most stable and viable form of exchange in the quadrant. In this vein, the credit sees its widest use along the frontier and on worlds outside the Federation sphere of influence and tends to be more popular among reputable traders.
The Constitution of the United Federation of Planets
When the leaders of the live founding worlds met on Epsilon Eridani in 2161, they set about drafting a series of articles to define the structure of their new Federation. These articles, once ratified, became the Constitution of the UFP.
The Constitution both establishes the power and function of the government and guarantees the rights of the individual, as well as those of each member world. The entire governmental structure of the Federation is diagrammed in this document. There are twenty-seven original Articles:
• ARTICLES ONE AND TWO: Set forth the basic goals o! the Federation: to establish a coalition of worlds each relying upon the other to further the peace, prosperity, and continued expansion of knowledge of the whole.
• ARTICLE THREE: Establishes the rights of the individual. As the Constitution explains, these rights do not come from the Constitution, they come from the simple fact of individual existence. These rights cannot be given or taken away, but they can be oppressed or violated. The third article exists to ensure the Federation does not have the right to take its citizen's rights away. Article Three is similar in many ways to the United States of America's Bill of Rights.
• ARTICLE FOUR: Ensures the right of each world to govern itself. The greatest fear of many non-Federation cultures is that joining the Federation means giving up the culture's current sovereignty over itself, submitting, in essence, to the government of a foreign power. While a certain degree of this is, by nature, necessary, the Federation goes to great lengths to minimize this at all times. If a world meets the eligibility requirements and agrees with the principles of the Constitution, it is free to employ any form of government it wants. Arguably, some forms of government are better suited to the principles of the Federation than others; so far no member worlds employ autocratic dictatorships, and most worlds use some form of democratic representation. Some planets, after analyzing the Federation Constitution, adopt it as their own governmental form.
• ARTICLE FIVE: Permits all member worlds to petition the Federation Council for arbitration in matters of dispute. These must occur between member worlds; internal legal matters must be resolved by the governing world's own judiciary system. The Federation Council only makes recommendations; it has no judiciary power over the member worlds. If either party in a dispute rejects the recommendations of the Council, it may appeal to the Federation Judiciary Board. Appeals to the Board may ultimately result in review by the Federation Supreme Court, the ultimate judiciary authority in the Federation.
• ARTICLES SIX THROUGH FIFTEEN: Describe the function and power of the Federation Council and its legislative powers. These ten articles form the meat of the Constitution, setting forth voting powers of council members and establishing the different permanent cabinets. Article Thirteen, for example, establishes Earth as the seat of Federation government.
• ARTICLES SIXTEEN THROOGH NINETEEN: Establish the office of President of the Federation, as well as his bureaucratic under cabinet, the Secretariat. The President serves as chief diplomat, establishes foreign policy, and functions as commander-in-chief of Starfleet. This necessarily requires thousands of man-hours of work every day. The offices of the Secretariat perform this work, reporting directly to the President.
• ARTICLE TWENTY: Establishes Starfleet as the Federation's defense force and exploration fleet. This article names San Francisco as Starfleet Headquarters and establishes a subcabinet of fleet admirals to serve as Starfleet Command, reporting directly to the President.
• ARTICLES TWENTY-ONE THROUGH TWENTY THREE: Set forth the powers of the judiciary branch. Article Twenty-two, for instance, establishes the Federation Supreme Court as ultimate legal authority.
• ARTICLES TWENTY FOUR AND TWENTY FIVE: Set forth the rules for membership in the Federation, as detailed above.
• ARTICLE TWENTY SIX: Delineates the process by which a member world or some subgroup of its population can establish a colony. The Colonial Rights article, as it is known, explains in great detail the limited authority the Federation has over its colonies and the aid to which colonies have a right. It also states that colonies must undergo the same rigorous review period and criteria established in the previous two articles if they wish to become full members.
• ARTICLE TWENTY-SEVEN: Explains the processes necessary to amend the Constitution. It explicitly forbids any alteration of Articles Three and Four.
The frontier lies at the extreme boundary of the Federation's influence. Supplies and aid take longer to get to the frontier than anywhere else in the Federation. The frontier also lies closest to the Federation's enemies. Those governments, such as the Romulan Star Empire and Cardassian Union, typically view established colonies as staging points for potential invasion and new colonies as attempts to redraw interstellar boundaries. Yet the frontier also contains a large number of unexplored, unpopulated, and possibly inhabitable worlds. Because of these basic facts, the frontier is a harsher, more dangerous place. Federation colonies are both more numerous and more vulnerable.
Colonies result from a number of factors. At any point in a planet's history, including the review period for Federation membership, some subset of the planet's population may desire to break off from the planet's governmental authority and form their own society. For some, it is a chance to start anew, far from perceived restrictions—a new beginning on worlds such as Cestus III, Caldos, or Deneva. For others, it is the chance to participate in some kind of social experiment, such as living the less technological lifestyle of Dr. Sandoval's colony on Omicron Ceti III. For still others, opportunity attracts them to even the harshest colony worlds—dilithium miners to Rigel XII, farmers to Coltar IV, or scientists to Omicron Theta.
The Federation and other powers willingly sponsor colonies. At any time, there are hundreds of extant Federation colonies, with roughly 10% of applications for Federation membership in a given year coming from colonial outposts. The UFP provides supplies, resources, advisors, and Starfleet protection. The Federation Bureau of Colonization must approve all prospective colonies. The Bureau assigns a survey team to examine the site, ensuring it meets the Bureau's requirements. The new site must not be on an inhabited world, must have sufficient resources to support a stable population, and must be relatively free of threat. If a group wanted to colonize an uninhabited world on which an Iconian gateway existed, the Bureau would turn the application down because of the possible risk to colony safety and Federation security (not to mention the scientific value).
For some people colonial life represents the best of two worlds. They gain some of the benefits of Federation life while benefiting from a higher degree of cultural and governmental freedom than might otherwise be possible as a full member. Most colonies start on moons or planets near the founding culture's homeworld. Occasionally, colonists desire to start completely anew, moving as far away from the parent homeworld as possible. Thus are frontier colonies born.
Some long-established colonies, such as those on Mars, Rigel, and Deneva, are essentially member worlds, and life on these older colonies is indistinguishable from life on a member world. They enjoy a high degree of technological sophistication, such as replicators, a large, stable population, and local industry. On the stereotypical "rugged" colonies along the frontier, however, life is markedly different.
Colonists typically work hard for many of the things most Federation citizens take for granted, including their survival. Science outposts are often isolated and depend on supply shipments from the Federation. On farming and mining colonies, people work long hours to maintain their precarious existence. On some colonial outposts, replicators may be unavailable because they require phenomenal amounts of energy, and such basic requirements as food and water must be acquired through farming or supply shipments. Buildings may either be prefabricated structures or constructed locally using primitive techniques. Some colonies, by their nature, may be located in hostile environments or inhospitable worlds—underground pergium mines or penal colonies on barren rocks—requiring sophisticated life support. Governments typically range from appointed colony administrators (since small colonies cannot support large bureaucracies) to various political and social systems—democracy, socialism, Luddism, and so forth. At any time, a colony could suffer utter catastrophe, from a Borg attack on the Jouret IV colony to radiation-induced hyperaccelerated aging on Gamma Hydra IV, from famine on Tarsus IV to government collapse on Turkana IV.
Finally, life on a colony requires, more than anything else, reliance on oneself and one's fellow colonists. Colonies are often so remote that, it can take time for a starship to arrive. If a strange alien race shows up in orbit, it is often up to colonists to decide the best course of action, whether to negotiate or fight, then follow through. To participate in a colony a colonist needs the ability and willingness to stand on his own two feet.
The Frontier and Exploration
The frontier also provides limitless opportunities for exploration. Starfleet's mandate devotes fully half its resources to exploration. Federation starships, unlike their Romulan, Klingon, or Cardassian counterparts, are packed with exploratory technology. From advanced sensor arrays sophisticated enough to catalog a planet's flora and fauna to dozens of probes designed for everything from atmospheric survey to spectrographic isotope isolation, Starfleet's capacity for exploration is unrivalled in the galaxy.
But the "frontier" of exploration is not always the edge of the Federation. New discoveries await on even the oldest, best known Federation worlds. Where Starfleet concentrates its resources changes from era to era.
The Frontier in Star Trek: The Next Generation
During the 24th century, Starfleet devoted itself to exploring more fully those planets merely surveyed in the previous century. The Federation couldn't simply continue forward, crossing political boundaries for the sake of exploration. With the Romulans and Klingons thwarting outward expansion in the Beta Quadrant, Starfleet at first changed direction, exploring spinward until it ran into the Cardassians and Ferengi. In effect, the major powers of the Alpha and Beta Quadrants "bumped up" against each other, making further outward exploration difficult.
As a result, exploration during this era meant detailed surveys of planets and systems only cursorily reported on previously, if at all. Ships in the previous century often expanded the Federation's frontiers by hundreds of light-years at a time, without stopping to catalog all the planetary systems and other stellar phenomena they passed. Starfleet concentrated on filling in the gaps on its star charts. It seemed the frontier—represented by new worlds to explore and new civilizations to study—could be anywhere: the next planet, system, or sector.
Additionally, contact between starship captains and Starfleet Command became, thanks to improved technology, much more frequent. Starfleet Command could advise on emerging situations, provide information more readily, and dispatch reinforcements more quickly and in greater numbers. As a result, starship crews became less isolated. Rather than as a group of individual, far-flung ships, Starfleet could act as a concerted whole.